How to classify and select a hardness tester
The hardness tester can be selected according to the following types of hardness tester.
Hardness meters for measuring metal hardness are:
1. Rockwell Hardness Tester : Used to test the hardness of various steels (including alloy steel and stainless steel). This is the most important and commonly used type of hardness tester. There are the following:
① Rockwell hardness tester. Refers to the manual hardness, the pointer display. This is the earliest and most commonly used hardness tester for steel hardness testing. It can measure hard alloy, hardened steel and unhardened steel. Softer cast iron and plates thinner than 2 mm are not suitable for this type of hardness tester.
There are three test forces, from small to large, with a total of three hardness: HRA, HRB, HRC, of which HRC is commonly used for quenched steel and mold steel.
② Electric Rockwell Hardness Tester: Same performance as ①. You don't need to hit the hardness manually, you can get more accurate data.
③ Rockwell hardness tester: same performance as ②. It is digital display and easy to read.
④ Digital surface Rockwell hardness tester: When the metal hardness layer is relatively thin, if the ordinary Rockwell hardness tester is used, the hardness layer will be penetrated, and the true hardness of the surface hardness layer cannot be measured. In this case, use a Rockwell surface hardness tester. Because the surface layer is thin, it is not easy to control manually. It is generally electric and digital display, so it is a digital surface Rockwell hardness tester. It is mainly used for carburizing or nitriding steel, electroplating, and for the hardness of the surface of metals such as steel, alloy steel, and cemented carbide.
⑤ Digital Rockwell and Surface Rockwell Hardness Tester: It can measure the general Rockwell hardness and the surface Rockwell hardness. According to the indenter matching and scale selection, the measurable parameters are HRA, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and K. CPU data processing. In addition to the printer is equipped with an RS-232 computer interface.
2 . Vickers hardness tester : used to measure the hardness of ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, hard alloys (such as aluminum alloys) and the surface carburized and nitrided layers, expressed as HV.
For materials with a thin surface layer and low hardness, use a small load Vickers hardness tester. This type of hardness tester is equipped with a microscope (some manufacturers call it a micro hardness tester) to observe the dents, and some are equipped with a programmed calculator to make the calculation of the hardness value fast and accurate. There is also a micro Vickers hardness tester with a minimum test force of only 10 grams of force (10 gf).
3． Brinell hardness tester: measure unhardened steel, cast iron, non-ferrous metals and soft bearing alloy materials, expressed as HBW. In addition to the general digital Brinell hardness tester, there are portable Brinell hardness tester, hammer type Brinell hardness tester and portal type Brinell hardness tester.
4． Blowaway hardness tester: that is, a hardness tester that can be used for Brinell, Rockwell and Vickers hardness. More suitable for development and research. (The factory is generally a large batch of the same product, it is more convenient to use a dedicated)
5. Shore hardness tester (also known as Shore hardness tester, this is because the hardness testers are all called by foreigners' last names, and different Chinese characters are different in transliteration): China has few standards in this regard, only HA and HD. The former is a softer rubber hardness parameter, the latter is a harder rubber or plastic hardness parameter. It should be pointed out that some plastics have high hardness, such as "saigang" (which can be made into wear-resistant parts such as gears), which is not suitable for measuring hardness with a Shore hardness tester.
The domestic Shore hardness testers are: LX-A (suitable for softer rubber or plastic) and CY-D (suitable for harder rubber and plastic).
There are many kinds in foreign countries. Japan's "Dele" brands are: GS-701N (suitable for sponges, blankets, soft rubber, rigid foam, etc.), GS702N (suitable for hard rubber, soft plastic, etc.), GS706N (suitable for general rubber ), GS709N (suitable for general rubber, general soft plastic). Japan's ASKER and the United States' PTC have their own specifications, but the hardness standard is still 0-100 degrees.
The Shore hardness tester can be measured manually. Because the manual force control is not very stable, you can add a base and apply force with a constant pressure loader to make the measurement more accurate. But generally the base is much more expensive than the hardness tester itself. Because the accuracy requirements of rubber hardness in our country are not too high, many manufacturers omit the base.
7. Leeb hardness tester: This is a smaller hardness tester that can convert various hardness values. It is mainly used for testing of metal materials, especially for larger workpieces. Because there are multiple impact devices, you should choose them when you purchase. It is mainly used for the testing of molds, because it is difficult for general Rockwell hardness testers to test large molds. China does not yet have a national standard in this regard, and the data after the Leeb hardness test can be converted.
8. Pencil hardness tester: This is used to test the hardness of the coating. In order to clamp a pencil on a "car" and slide it on the coating, judge the coating based on the hardness of the pencil and the scratches on the coating. hardness.
The test equipment for the hardness of various materials is basically the above.
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